Basic usage

Basic usage #

For the basic usage introduction we will be installing pendulum, a datetime library. If you have not yet installed Poetry, refer to the Introduction chapter.

Project setup #

First, let’s create our new project, let’s call it poetry-demo:

poetry new poetry-demo

This will create the poetry-demo directory with the following content:

poetry-demo
├── pyproject.toml
├── README.rst
├── poetry_demo
│   └── __init__.py
└── tests
    ├── __init__.py
    └── test_poetry_demo.py

The pyproject.toml file is what is the most important here. This will orchestrate your project and its dependencies. For now, it looks like this:

[tool.poetry]
name = "poetry-demo"
version = "0.1.0"
description = ""
authors = ["Sébastien Eustace <sebastien@eustace.io>"]

[tool.poetry.dependencies]
python = "*"

[tool.poetry.dev-dependencies]
pytest = "^3.4"

Initialising a pre-existing project #

Instead of creating a new project, Poetry can be used to ‘initialise’ a pre-populated directory. To interactively create a pyproject.toml file in directory pre-existing-project:

cd pre-existing-project
poetry init

Specifying dependencies #

If you want to add dependencies to your project, you can specify them in the tool.poetry.dependencies section.

[tool.poetry.dependencies]
pendulum = "^1.4"

As you can see, it takes a mapping of package names and version constraints.

Poetry uses this information to search for the right set of files in package “repositories” that you register in the tool.poetry.repositories section, or on PyPI by default.

Also, instead of modifying the pyproject.toml file by hand, you can use the add command.

$ poetry add pendulum

It will automatically find a suitable version constraint and install the package and subdependencies.

Using your virtual environment #

By default, poetry creates a virtual environment in {cache-dir}/virtualenvs ({cache-dir}\virtualenvs on Windows). You can change the cache-dir value by editing the poetry config. Additionally, you can use the virtualenvs.in-project configuration variable to create virtual environment within your project directory.

There are several ways to run commands within this virtual environment.

Using poetry run #

To run your script simply use poetry run python your_script.py. Likewise if you have command line tools such as pytest or black you can run them using poetry run pytest.

Activating the virtual environment #

The easiest way to activate the virtual environment is to create a new shell with poetry shell. To deactivate the virtual environment and exit this new shell type exit. To deactivate the virtual environment without leaving the shell use deactivate.

Note

Why a new shell?

Child processes inherit their environment from their parents, but do not share them. As such, any modifications made by a child process, is not persisted after the child process exits. A Python application (Poetry), being a child process, cannot modify the environment of the shell that it has been called from such that an activated virtual environment remains active after the Poetry command has completed execution.

Therefore, Poetry has to create a sub-shell with the virtual environment activated in order for the subsequent commands to run from within the virtual environment.

Alternatively, to avoid creating a new shell, you can manually activate the virtual environment by running source {path_to_venv}/bin/activate ({path_to_venv}\Scripts\activate.bat on Windows). To get the path to your virtual environment run poetry env info --path. You can also combine these into a nice one-liner, source $(poetry env info --path)/bin/activate To deactivate this virtual environment simply use deactivate.

POSIX Shell Windows Exit/Deactivate
New Shell poetry shell poetry shell exit
Manual Activation source {path_to_venv}/bin/activate {path_to_venv}\Scripts\activate.bat deactivate
One-liner source `poetry env info --path`/bin/activate deactivate

Version constraints #

In our example, we are requesting the pendulum package with the version constraint ^1.4. This means any version greater or equal to 1.4.0 and less than 2.0.0 (>=1.4.0 <2.0.0).

Please read Dependency specification for more in-depth information on versions, how versions relate to each other, and on the different ways you can specify dependencies.

Note

How does Poetry download the right files?

When you specify a dependency in pyproject.toml, Poetry first takes the name of the package that you have requested and searches for it in any repository you have registered using the repositories key. If you have not registered any extra repositories, or it does not find a package with that name in the repositories you have specified, it falls back on PyPI.

When Poetry finds the right package, it then attempts to find the best match for the version constraint you have specified.

Installing dependencies #

To install the defined dependencies for your project, just run the install command.

poetry install

When you run this command, one of two things may happen:

Installing without poetry.lock #

If you have never run the command before and there is also no poetry.lock file present, Poetry simply resolves all dependencies listed in your pyproject.toml file and downloads the latest version of their files.

When Poetry has finished installing, it writes all of the packages and the exact versions of them that it downloaded to the poetry.lock file, locking the project to those specific versions. You should commit the poetry.lock file to your project repo so that all people working on the project are locked to the same versions of dependencies (more below).

Installing with poetry.lock #

This brings us to the second scenario. If there is already a poetry.lock file as well as a pyproject.toml file when you run poetry install, it means either you ran the install command before, or someone else on the project ran the install command and committed the poetry.lock file to the project (which is good).

Either way, running install when a poetry.lock file is present resolves and installs all dependencies that you listed in pyproject.toml, but Poetry uses the exact versions listed in poetry.lock to ensure that the package versions are consistent for everyone working on your project. As a result you will have all dependencies requested by your pyproject.toml file, but they may not all be at the very latest available versions (some of the dependencies listed in the poetry.lock file may have released newer versions since the file was created). This is by design, it ensures that your project does not break because of unexpected changes in dependencies.

Commit your poetry.lock file to version control #

Committing this file to VC is important because it will cause anyone who sets up the project to use the exact same versions of the dependencies that you are using. Your CI server, production machines, other developers in your team, everything and everyone runs on the same dependencies, which mitigates the potential for bugs affecting only some parts of the deployments. Even if you develop alone, in six months when reinstalling the project you can feel confident the dependencies installed are still working even if your dependencies released many new versions since then. (See note below about using the update command.)

Note
For libraries it is not necessary to commit the lock file.

Installing dependencies only #

The current project is installed in editable mode by default.

If you want to install the dependencies only, run the install command with the --no-root flag:

poetry install --no-root

Updating dependencies to their latest versions #

As mentioned above, the poetry.lock file prevents you from automatically getting the latest versions of your dependencies. To update to the latest versions, use the update command. This will fetch the latest matching versions (according to your pyproject.toml file) and update the lock file with the new versions. (This is equivalent to deleting the poetry.lock file and running install again.)

Note
Poetry will display a Warning when executing an install command if poetry.lock and pyproject.toml are not synchronized.