Dependency specification

Dependency specification #

Dependencies for a project can be specified in various forms, which depend on the type of the dependency and on the optional constraints that might be needed for it to be installed.

Version constraints #

Caret requirements #

Caret requirements allow SemVer compatible updates to a specified version. An update is allowed if the new version number does not modify the left-most non-zero digit in the major, minor, patch grouping. For instance, if we previously ran poetry add requests@^2.13.0 and wanted to update the library and ran poetry update requests, poetry would update us to version 2.14.0 if it was available, but would not update us to 3.0.0. If instead we had specified the version string as ^0.1.13, poetry would update to 0.1.14 but not 0.2.0. 0.0.x is not considered compatible with any other version.

Here are some more examples of caret requirements and the versions that would be allowed with them:

Requirement Versions allowed
^1.2.3 >=1.2.3 <2.0.0
^1.2 >=1.2.0 <2.0.0
^1 >=1.0.0 <2.0.0
^0.2.3 >=0.2.3 <0.3.0
^0.0.3 >=0.0.3 <0.0.4
^0.0 >=0.0.0 <0.1.0
^0 >=0.0.0 <1.0.0

Tilde requirements #

Tilde requirements specify a minimal version with some ability to update. If you specify a major, minor, and patch version or only a major and minor version, only patch-level changes are allowed. If you only specify a major version, then minor- and patch-level changes are allowed.

~1.2.3 is an example of a tilde requirement.

Requirement Versions allowed
~1.2.3 >=1.2.3 <1.3.0
~1.2 >=1.2.0 <1.3.0
~1 >=1.0.0 <2.0.0

Wildcard requirements #

Wildcard requirements allow for the latest (dependency dependent) version where the wildcard is positioned.

*, 1.* and 1.2.* are examples of wildcard requirements.

Requirement Versions allowed
* >=0.0.0
1.* >=1.0.0 <2.0.0
1.2.* >=1.2.0 <1.3.0

Inequality requirements #

Inequality requirements allow manually specifying a version range or an exact version to depend on.

Here are some examples of inequality requirements:

>= 1.2.0
> 1
< 2
!= 1.2.3

Multiple requirements #

Multiple version requirements can also be separated with a comma, e.g. >= 1.2, < 1.5.

Exact requirements #

You can specify the exact version of a package.

1.2.3 is an example of an exact version specification.

This will tell Poetry to install this version and this version only. If other dependencies require a different version, the solver will ultimately fail and abort any install or update procedures.

Exact versions can also be specified with == according to PEP 440.

==1.2.3 is an example of this.

Using the @ operator #

When adding dependencies via poetry add, you can use the @ operator. This is understood similarly to the == syntax, but also allows prefixing any specifiers that are valid in pyproject.toml. For example:

poetry add django@^4.0.0

The above would translate to the following entry in pyproject.toml:

Django = "^4.0.0"

The special keyword latest is also understood by the @ operator:

poetry add django@latest

The above would translate to the following entry in pyproject.toml, assuming the latest release of django is 4.0.5:

Django = "^4.0.5"

Extras #

Extras and @ can be combined as one might expect (package[extra]@version):

poetry add django[bcrypt]@^4.0.0

git dependencies #

To depend on a library located in a git repository, the minimum information you need to specify is the location of the repository with the git key:

requests = { git = "" }

Since we haven’t specified any other information, Poetry assumes that we intend to use the latest commit on the main branch to build our project.

You can combine the git key with the branch key to use another branch. Alternatively, use rev or tag to pin a dependency to a specific commit hash or tagged ref, respectively. For example:

# Get the latest revision on the branch named "next"
requests = { git = "", branch = "next" }
# Get a revision by its commit hash
flask = { git = "", rev = "38eb5d3b" }
# Get a revision by its tag
numpy = { git = "", tag = "v0.13.2" }

In cases where the package you want to install is located in a subdirectory of the VCS repository, you can use the subdirectory option, similarly to what pip provides:

# Install a package named `subdir_package` from a folder called `subdir` within the repository
subdir_package = { git = "", subdirectory = "subdir" }

with the corresponding add call:

poetry add "git+"

To use an SSH connection, for example in the case of private repositories, use the following example syntax:

requests = { git = "" }

To use HTTP basic authentication with your git repositories, you can configure credentials similar to how repository credentials are configured.

poetry config repositories.git-org-project
poetry config http-basic.git-org-project username token
poetry add git+

With Poetry 1.2 releases, the default git client used is Dulwich.

We fall back to legacy system git client implementation in cases where gitcredentials is used. This fallback will be removed in a future release where gitcredentials helpers can be better supported natively.

In cases where you encounter issues with the default implementation that used to work prior to Poetry 1.2, you may wish to explicitly configure the use of the system git client via a shell subprocess call.

poetry config experimental.system-git-client true

Keep in mind however, that doing so will surface bugs that existed in versions prior to 1.2 which were caused due to the use of the system git client.

path dependencies #

To depend on a library located in a local directory or file, you can use the path property:

# directory
my-package = { path = "../my-package/", develop = false }

# file
my-package = { path = "../my-package/dist/my-package-0.1.0.tar.gz" }
Before poetry 1.1 directory path dependencies were installed in editable mode by default. You should set the develop attribute explicitly, to make sure the behavior is the same for all poetry versions.

url dependencies #

To depend on a library located on a remote archive, you can use the url property:

# directory
my-package = { url = "" }

with the corresponding add call:

poetry add

Dependency extras #

You can specify PEP-508 Extras for a dependency as shown here.

gunicorn = { version = "^20.1", extras = ["gevent"] }
These activate extra defined for the dependency, to configure an optional dependency for extras in your project refer to extras.

source dependencies #

To depend on a package from an alternate repository, you can use the source property:

name = "foo"
url = ""
priority = "supplemental"

my-cool-package = { version = "*", source = "foo" }

with the corresponding add call:

poetry add my-cool-package --source foo
In this example, we expect foo to be configured correctly. See using a private repository for further information.

Python restricted dependencies #

You can also specify that a dependency should be installed only for specific Python versions:

tomli = { version = "^2.0.1", python = "<3.11" }
pathlib2 = { version = "^2.2", python = "^3.2" }

Using environment markers #

If you need more complex install conditions for your dependencies, Poetry supports environment markers via the markers property:

pathlib2 = { version = "^2.2", markers = "python_version <= '3.4' or sys_platform == 'win32'" }

Multiple constraints dependencies #

Sometimes, one of your dependency may have different version ranges depending on the target Python versions.

Let’s say you have a dependency on the package foo which is only compatible with Python 3.6-3.7 up to version 1.9, and compatible with Python 3.8+ from version 2.0: you would declare it like so:

foo = [
    {version = "<=1.9", python = ">=3.6,<3.8"},
    {version = "^2.0", python = ">=3.8"}
The constraints must have different requirements (like python) otherwise it will cause an error when resolving dependencies.

Combining git / url / path dependencies with source repositories #

Direct origin (git/ url/ path) dependencies can satisfy the requirement of a dependency that doesn’t explicitly specify a source, even when mutually exclusive markers are used. For instance in the following example the url package will also be a valid solution for the second requirement:

foo = [
    { platform = "darwin", url = "" },
    { platform = "linux", version = "^1.0" },

Sometimes you may instead want to use a direct origin dependency for specific conditions (i.e. a compiled package that is not available on PyPI for a certain platform/architecture) while falling back on source repositories in other cases. In this case you should explicitly ask for your dependency to be satisfied by another source. For example:

foo = [
    { platform = "darwin", url = "" },
    { platform = "linux", version = "^1.0", source = "pypi" },

Expanded dependency specification syntax #

In the case of more complex dependency specifications, you may find that you end up with lines which are very long and difficult to read. In these cases, you can shift from using “inline table” syntax, to the “standard table” syntax.

An example where this might be useful is the following:

black = {version = "19.10b0", allow-prereleases = true, python = "^3.7", markers = "platform_python_implementation == 'CPython'"}

As a single line, this is a lot to digest. To make this a bit easier to work with, you can do the following:

version = "19.10b0"
allow-prereleases = true
python = "^3.7"
markers = "platform_python_implementation == 'CPython'"

The same information is still present, and ends up providing the exact same specification. It’s simply split into multiple, slightly more readable, lines.